A clean room is an enclosed space in which several environmental criteria are controlled: concentration of particles suspended in the air, humidity, temperature, gas emissions, etc. Variations in these different criteria can damage the equipment being handled, contaminate food or pharmaceutical products and encourage the circulation of potentially hazardous elements, such as viruses or explosive particles.
Apart from operating theatres, clean rooms are mainly constructed in health care establishments, in the food industry, in microelectronics, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and biotechnologies, as well as in the space sector.
They have to comply with standard ISO 14644-1, which specifies the classification of the particular cleanliness of the air in terms of concentration of particles suspended in the air.
This classification guarantees the protection and security of the people working in the clean rooms, as well as the cleanliness and non-contamination of the products handled (cosmetics, food, medical equipment).